Monthly Archives: July 2017

Why Cat?

Sometimes, when new-comers come to functional programming, they see some things which may seem strange to them. Things which don’t make sense from an object-oriented perspective. I’m going to take an example of this and show you what I mean. Lets say we take the following Javascript function cat, which takes multiple arrays and merges them all into one (I am using the Ramda library to assist. Anything with the R prefix is a Ramda function):

var cat = function () {
  var head = R.head(arguments);
  if (head)
    return head.concat.apply(head, R.tail(arguments));
    return [];

The question may be posed, why bother with that function when Javascript has concat built in as a method on the Array prototype? The big difference is that concat is called on the object (the instance array), whereas cat operates on whatever is passed to it.:

// concat
[2, 1].concat([7, 6, 3, 4], [9, 6, 8]);
// returns [2, 1, 7, 6, 3, 4, 9, 6, 8]

// cat
cat([2, 1], [7, 6, 3, 4], [9, 6, 8])
// also returns [2, 1, 7, 6, 3, 4, 9, 6, 8]

It’s all about composability. Functional programming is a very “composable” paradigm. Functions (like cat) operate on whatever is passed to them as parameters. They do not operate on objects upon which they are methods. They are “free-standing” in nature. Lets see cat get composed as part of a bigger pipeline. Here, we have a function called splat. splat will basically flatten the arguments object of a function, similar to LINQ’s SelectMany:

var splat = function (fun) {
	return function(array) {
		return fun.apply(null, array);

Now, lets say we want to use cat to merge some arrays. But the arrays are buried in the item of a larger array. Here’s how we could solve that:

var flatCat = splat(cat);
var arraysToMerge = [[7, 6, 3, 4], [2, 1],[77, 2, 45]]; // the arrays are in the 1st and only index of this larger array
var result = flatCat(arraysToMerge);
// result will be [7, 6, 3, 4, 2, 1, 77, 2, 45];

This works nicely with cat, but you cannot pass Array.prototype.concat into splat. It just won’t work. It’s object-focused nature is its undoing. Run it yourself with concat, instead of cat, to see it bomb out and you’ll understand why it failed.

So, whilst our first glance at cat seemed to size it up as a pointless refactoring to achieve the same thing as Array.prototype.concat, I hope I’ve demonstrated that by tweaking the concept into a function which stands alone (separate from any “owning” object), we can use it as a composable part in a larger operation. Just one cog in the functional pipeline.

Just remember, cat operates on whatever is passed to it.